CRETE - 8,000 YEARS OF HISTORY (6000 BC - 2000 AD)
Neolithic Period & Minoan Crete
There is as yet no evidence from Crete for human occupation in either
the Palaeolithic or Mesolithic periods. Fossils of elephants, deer, wild
goats and other animals were found and they are believed to be older than
human presence. Early Neolithic finds are so far restricted to the settlement
6000 - 5700 BC
There is no pottery, but two baked clay figurines have been found.
Walls are of unbaked mudbrick or of stones, mud, and mudbrick. No
complete house plans have been recovered. The economy is a fully
developed Neolithic one including domesticated wheat, barley, lentils,
sheep/goat, pig, and some cattle. Stone axe-heads are rare.
Early Neolithic I (ca. 5700-4000 b.c.)
This period constitutes by far the longest stage of homogeneous
cultural activity on the site. The buildings in I are rectangular
and constructed of fired mudbrick on stone foundations. Wall surfaces
are regularly mud-plastered. Pottery, which appears in a fully developed
form and increases in quantity with time, is generally dark-surfaced
Early Neolithic II (ca. 4000-3700 b.c.)
There are no apparent changes in the architecture.
Towards the end of the period, new shapes in pottery increase in
frequency and rippled relief decoration becomes popular.
Near the end of the period the first evidence for a weaving industry
Stone maceheads and axes increase in frequency. Rock crystal makes
its first appearance among the materials used for chipped stone
This is a short transitional phase. For the first time, sizable
portions of house plans were recovered. The buildings are large,
basically rectangular units with many small rooms.
The changes in the pottery are minor.
There is increased evidence for weaving, and the number of stone
axes and maceheads continues to grow.
The first evidence for the use of metal artifacts consists of a
copper axe found by Sir Arthur Evans in one of the buildings he
There is now growing evidence for occupation at a number of other
sites in Crete in the form of pottery from Phaistos, finds from
numerous caves in west and central Crete (e.g. Platyvola, Trapeza).
Bronze Age - The Minoan Civilization (3000-1100 BC)
In these years the island met the most significant development becoming
a marine, trade and art creation center. The people were farmers,
shepherds and mainly marines, with notable merchant relations with
Asia, Africa and the Cyclades. The civilization that was developed
was named Minoan, after the legendary King Minos, by the English
archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, during his excavations at the Palace
of Knossos. There is no evidence that the Minoans were a military
people; they thrived instead, it seems, on their remarkable mercantile
abilities. This lack of a military culture, however, may have spelled
their final downfall.
This period is now sorted according to the chronological system of
the Greek archaeologist N. Platonas, based on the time-span of the
big Minoan palaces, to the following periods:
The Prepalatial Period
3000 -1900 BC
The characteristic of this period is the gathering of the people
in villages and towns by the sea, mainly in the east, instead of
the dispersed habitation in caves and shelters of the Neolithic
years. The houses have more rooms and are better built.
The development of art is remarkable for this era. The pottery
is handmade, fired, painted and decorated with various geometric
shapes or animal icons.
The tools and weapons are made in the beginning by stone, later
The dead are buried in caves, like in the Neolithic period, but
later the first built tombs appear, others with square stones and
others with a circular domed shape.
Hundreds of inscriptions of this period, that were found during
the excavations, cannot be translated, until there will be discovered
a bilingual inscription, that will give the key to the interpretation
of that writing.
The Old Palace or Protopalatial Period
Big towns are founded and the first big palaces are built (Knossos,
Festos, Malia). The palaces are built around a central open court
with buildings of many floors. They included big rooms for social
functions, the private rooms of the authorities, the houses of the
workers, workshops, storerooms, theatres, baths, sewage facilities.
Big sanctuaries are founded in caves, on the top of mountains and
in the palaces.
Goddess Mother Earth is adored, symbolised by the double axe.
The pottery is developed by introduction of the potter's wheel,
with real masterpieces the thin-walled (egg-shell ware) multicoloured
style) and the goldsmith's art becomes technically perfect
with jewellery of various designs and rich decoration.
The catastrophe comes with big earthquakes.
The New Palace or Neopalatial Period
The prosperity of the civilization and the political power of the
Minoan Crete. The island becomes united, with it's capital being
Knossos and its power is expanding, with trading relations with
Minor Asia, Egypt and Cyprus, with strong influences on the mainland
of Greece, the Cycladic islands, Rhodes and Kos islands and colonies
on the islands of Kea, Milos and Santorini (Akrotiri site) and perhaps
Sicily. These colonies were achieved not by wars, but with merchant
stations. The protection of these colonies from the pirates and
other enemies is being ensured by the minoan navy, the power of
which is acclaimed by Greek historians. Thoucydides wrote
about King Minos of Crete:
"And the first person known to us by tradition as having established
a navy is Minos. He made himself master of what is now called the
Aegean sea, and ruled over the Cyclades, into most of which he sent
the first colonies, expelling the Carians and appointing his own
sons governors; and thus did his best to put down piracy in those
waters, a necessary step to secure the revenues for his own use."
The palaces are rebuilt or becoming more luxury, with the decoration
of sculptures and fresco paintings. These buildings were to be admired
not only for their architecture, rich decoration and building art,
but also for the methods in hygiene and decency of their hydraulic
and sewage systems. The main palaces are those of Knossos,
Festos, Malia and Zakros and smaller ones are appearing (Arhanes,
Agia Triada, Tylisos and others). The remains of these palaces that
can be visited now in Crete, are of this period.
Roads are being opened and bridges are being built. The prosperity
is appearing in every form of art: in pottery, sculpture (Goddess
of the Snakes), plastic arts, vase making, fresco painting,
sculptured seal stones, decoration in metal weapons and tools, small
details show the achievement of perfection.
The graves become monumental, real buildings of subterranean residence,
with roads to the entrance and halls with columns where the ceremony
was taking place. The normal graves are dome shaped or deep holes,
with the dead being buried with objects of normal life, revealing
the faith of Minoans to life after death and potential resurrection.
The political authority was King Minos, which was the name of the
first emperor, the mythical son of Zeus and Europe, but in the following
years the name of each emperor of the island during the Minoan years,
in the same like the name of Caesar became the title for the Roman
In writing mainly is used Linear A script, which has not been deciphered
It has not been clear yet why the Minoan palaces were deserted:
volcanic eruption that happened at Santorini island, bringing
a tidal wave, by earthquakes, by fire destruction at the Minoan
sites, or from the human invasion from the mainland of Greece.
Largest Eruptions in the Last 10,000 years
The Postpalatial period
After the invasion from the mainland of Greece, many towns had been
destroyed or deserted, especially at the east of Crete. The old
inhabitants are moving to the west, while the invaders settle to
the island increasingly, building their new habitations in the
place of the old ones, or establishing new settlements. The activity
in the island is continued with architecture, pottery, metallurgy,
decorative arts, but becoming repetitive, in contrast of the great
diversity of the earlier years. The last years of this period are
characterized from a general decadence due to the continuing colonization
by other people from Greece, who brought their own culture and
The Early Iron Age 1100-650 BC
After the Dorian invasion from Peloponnese, the most of the old cities
are deserted and the majority of the population moved to inaccessible mountain
shelters, interrupting communication with the outside world.
The Archaic period 650-500 BC
The population of the island increases, with the infiltration of the Dorians,
especially in the West of Crete. New towns are being established, like
Axos, Falasarna, Polyrinnia, Yrtakina and the population in others, like
Eleftherna and Kydonia (Hania) is increasing.
The Classical and Hellenistic Periods 500-69 BC
Greece develops, but this does not happen with Crete, with the towns being
in antagonism or fighting each other. The population of the island increases.
The Roman Period and the first Byzantine Years 69 BC-824 AC
The Romans lost the war against Crete in 71 BC, but 2 years later they
came back with more army and navy. The island was occupied after three
years resistance, with the Romans accomplishing their desire to conquer
the famous birthplace of Zeus.
During the period of Pax Romana the island prospers and develops with
trade. It's capital became Gortys.
Around 63-66 AC, Christianity comes to Crete and the first Christian
church is being established in Crete, at Gortys, by bishop Titos.
The Arab Occupation and the Byzantine Years 824-1204
In 824, Crete was captured by Arab raiders, who ravaged the island,
destroyed Gortys and other towns, burned every basilica church and succeeded
to many atrocities against the Greek population. To protect from the
relief expeditions of the Byzantines, they built their capital, El
Khandak, where today is the site of Iraklion.
Crete, because of its position had become the slave-trading capital
of the East Mediterranean and a constant threat for the Byzantine Empire.
After many unsuccessful expeditions, Nikiforos Fokas recaptured the island
in 961, demolished the walls of El Khandak, so that they could not be
useful to new pirates and reinvigorated with different ways the much-depleted
Christian community. The administrative center was re-established on
the ruins of El Khandak, renamed to Handakas. In the end of the
12th century, new settlers were sent to Crete from Consantinople, headed
by 12 aristocrats, that created the new Cretan aristocracy.
The Venetian Period 1204-1669
With the capture of Constantinople with the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine
Empire was divided. Crete was given to Boniface of Monferat, who sold
the island to Venice, in 1204. The Venetians kept Handakas as the capital
and built castles in different parts in the island.
The Greek bishop was sent away and the Latin bishops were established,
but without annoying the lower Orthodox clergy and religion. Many orthodox
churches and chapels were built, that can be visited today throughout
The earth was taken from the people and was given to Venetian knights,
with the former owners becoming slaves. Taxes and labour obligation made
life very difficult. The venetian occupation could not be accepted from
the Cretan people and their independent character. The continuous revolts
for many years, brought a hard repression and tortures.
After the fall of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, many Greeks
moved to Crete and the Byzantine culture was strengthened. Because of
the Turkish threat and their attacks, Venetians and Cretans managed to
co-exist, with the island appearing significant economical and cultural
Great artists of the period were, in icon painting, Michail Damaskinos and Domenico
Theotokopoulos (famous as El Greco) and, in literature and
theater, Vitsentzos Kornaros from Sitia, Georgios Hortatzis from
Rethymno and others, unknown till today.
The Turkish Occupation 1669-1898
The Turks with continuous expeditions will try to capture the island.
In 1645, they capture Hania and Rethymno and in 1669, after 22-year siege, Candia (the
Venetian name of Heraklion) was forced to surrender.
The occupation was the hardest one the island had met: killings, raping,
unbearable taxation, violent inslamation and slavery, made that the revolts
became a way of life. The Big Revolt of
1821 for Independence led to the freedom of Greece but it
failed in Crete. The London's protocol on 1830, establishing Greece as
an independent country, was not including Crete.
The last protest of the Cretan council to the Christian European countries,
on 1830, was ending like this: "Here is Crete, the kingdom of Minos,
that gave the first laws in the world, many sciences and arts... It preserved
under the Greek name, over 3000 years, it's children, who abandoned from
their brother Christians, after a ten year exterminating war to get rid
of the dreadful tyranny, become again victims of the cruelty of the inhuman
Crete was sold by the Turkish sultan to Egypt, starting a new period
of dynasty and misfortunes. In 1841, after Egypt's unsuccessful revolt
against Turkey, all Egypt's possessions were left to the Turks. The Cretans
continued fighting for their freedom, with the most tragic being the
revolt of 1866, which ended to the blowing-up of Arkadi Monastery.
Revolutions and endless wars continued until 1898, when the four Great
Powers, England, France, Russia and Italy imposed as a solution to the
Cretan problem the autonomy of Crete under Ottoman suzerainty, under
the terms of complete withdrawal of the Turkish army from the island.
Modern History 1898 - today
In 1908 the army of the four Powers left the island, after the insistence
of Crete to unite with Greece and in 1913 (Union
of Crete with Greece) the island became an integral part of Greece. Agriculture
and trade started to prosper, untill 1941, when the Germans
occupied the island, until 1945. In recent years, agriculture,
trade, industry and tourism have brought the island a remarkable development.
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